The lack of knowledge about the relationship between tumor genotypes and therapeutic responses remains one of the most important gaps in enabling the effective use of cancer therapies. Here, we couple a multiplexed and quantitative platform with robust statistical methods to enable pharmacogenomic mapping of lung cancer treatment responses in vivo . We uncover a surprisingly complex map of genotype-specific therapeutic responses, with over 20% of possible interactions showing significant resistance or sensitivity. We validate one of these interactions - the resistance of Keap1 mutant tumors to platinum therapy - using a large patient response dataset. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the genetic determinants of treatment responses in the development of precision therapies and define a strategy to identify such determinants.